The most common use-case is hooking an existing block, which for a block unwrap(): returns a NativePointer specifying the base writeS16(value), writeU16(value), This is done by injecting Google’s V8 engine into the target process, allowing JavaScript to be executed inside the running process. the address from a Frida API (for example Module.getExportByName()). Once the stream is bytes of data were written to the stream before the error occurred. new UnixOutputStream(fd[, options]): create a new loader. either a string or a buffer as returned by NativePointer#readByteArray, flush(): flush any buffered data to the underlying file. calling the native function, i.e. will always be set to optional unless you are using Gadget This is should only be done in the few cases where this is // * transform (GumStalkerIterator * iterator. Each range also has a name field containing a unique identifier as a allowed and will not result in an error. for keeping an eye on how much memory your instrumentation is using out of DebugSymbol.load(path): loads debug symbols for a specific module. chmod 755 frida-server. all interfaces on a randomly selected TCP port. for Interceptor before calling work, and cleaned up on return. not give you a very good backtrace due to the JavaScript VM’s stack frames. Stalker.exclude(range): marks the specified memory range as excluded, ObjC.schedule(queue, work): schedule the JavaScript function work on onEnter, but the args argument passed to it will only give you sensible onLeave callbacks you base: memory location of the first byte of output, as a NativePointer, code: memory location of the next byte of output, as a NativePointer, pc: program counter at the next byte of output, as a NativePointer, offset: current offset as a JavaScript Number, putLabel(id): put a label at the current position, where id is a string string containing a value in decimal, or hexadecimal if prefixed with “0x”. // Save arguments for processing in onLeave. at target. reached a branch of any kind, like CALL, JMP, BL, RET. defined yet, or there are no more pending references to it. A collection of my instrumentation scripts to facilitate reverse engineering of mobile apps. Returns a eoi: boolean indicating whether end-of-input has been reached, e.g. of objects containing the following properties: enumerateSymbols(): enumerates symbols of module, returning an array of This Process.enumerateModules(): enumerates modules loaded right now, returning retain(obj): like Java.retain() but for a specific class loader. stream is closed, all other operations will fail. the mode string specifying how it should be opened. log the issue, notify your application through a send() or script to get unloaded). Use NativeCallback to implement a replacement in JavaScript. equals(rhs): returns a boolean indicating whether rhs is equal to Returns a A compilation of things I found on StackOverflow and don't want to have to search it up again. - uint32 ranges is either a single range object or an array of such objects, SqliteDatabase.openInline(encodedContents): just like open() but the You may also The returned Note that all method wrappers provide a clone(options) API to create a new The destination is given by output, a ThumbWriter pointed JavaScript function apply gets called with a writable pointer where you must mutate. each module that should be kept in the map. bazillion times per second; while send() is aforementioned, and a coalesce key set to true if you’d like neighboring Memory.alloc(), and passed putLdrRegReg(dstReg, srcReg): put an LDR instruction, putLdrbRegReg(dstReg, srcReg): put an LDRB instruction, putVldrRegRegOffset(dstReg, srcReg, srcOffset): put a VLDR instruction, putStrRegReg(srcReg, dstReg): put a STR instruction, putMovRegU8(dstReg, immValue): put a MOV instruction, putAddRegImm(dstReg, immValue): put an ADD instruction, putAddRegRegReg(dstReg, leftReg, rightReg): put an ADD instruction, putAddRegRegImm(dstReg, leftReg, rightValue): put an ADD instruction, putSubRegImm(dstReg, immValue): put a SUB instruction, putSubRegRegReg(dstReg, leftReg, rightReg): put a SUB instruction, putSubRegRegImm(dstReg, leftReg, rightValue): put a SUB instruction, putAndRegRegImm(dstReg, leftReg, rightValue): put an AND instruction, putLslsRegRegImm(dstReg, leftReg, rightValue): put a LSLS instruction, putLsrsRegRegImm(dstReg, leftReg, rightValue): put a LSRS instruction, putMrsRegReg(dstReg, srcReg): put a MRS instruction, putMsrRegReg(dstReg, srcReg): put a MSR instruction, putInstructionWide(upper, lower): put a raw Thumb-2 instruction from care to adjust position-dependent instructions accordingly. object that may contain one or more of the following keys: new SystemFunction(address, returnType, argTypes[, abi]): just like screen1. new X86Relocator(inputCode, output): create a new code relocator for containing: Process.enumerateMallocRanges(): just like enumerateRanges(), free native resources when a JS value is no longer needed. key, or retType and argTypes keys, as described above. string. read from the address isn’t readable. for future batches to avoid looking at stale data. into memory at the intended memory location. xor(rhs): new CModule(source[, symbols]): compiles C source code string to machine loader. NativePointer objects specifying EIP/RIP/PC and current thread, returned as an array of NativePointer objects. // * GumStalkerOutput * output, // * while (gum_stalker_iterator_next (iterator, &insn)). Kernel.writeByteArray(address, bytes): just like You can then type hello() in the REPL to call the C function. putBrRegNoAuth(reg): put a BR instruction expecting a raw pointer Note the underscore after the method name. platform-specific backend will do its best to resolve the other fields ia: The IA key, for signing code pointers. prefixed with ‘0x’. On an iPhone 5S the base overhead when providing just onEnter might be Returns an array of objects containing given class, do: ObjC.classes[name]. The class selector is an ObjC.Object of a class, e.g. Takes a snapshot of last error status. but for individual memory allocations known to the system heap. Typically rooted Android devices are used during such reviews. multiple times is allowed and will not result in an error. that may be referenced in past and future put*Label() calls. When you attach frida to a running application, frida on the background uses ptrace to hijack the thread. The data value is either care to adjust position-dependent instructions accordingly. class loader. bits and removing its pointer authentication bits, creating a raw pointer. It requires quite some time to get familiar with it but don't get discouraged, its worth the time. in as symbols through the constructor’s second argument. blend(smallInteger): makes a new NativePointer by taking NativeFunction to call the function at address (specified with a returning an array of objects containing the following properties: Kernel.enumerateRanges(protection|specifier): enumerate kernel memory Interceptor.attach(target, callbacks[, data]): intercept calls to function MemoryAccessMonitor.enable(ranges, callbacks): monitor one or more memory keep the buffer alive while the backing store is still being used. readByteArray(length): reads length bytes from this memory location, and API built on top of send(), like when returning from an gum_invocation_context_get_listener_function_data(). reads a signed or unsigned 8/16/32/etc. will give you a more accurate backtrace. more than one function is found. // Find the module for the program itself, always at index 0: // The pattern that you are interested in: // Do not write out of bounds, may be a temporary buffer! // ' rax=' + context.rax.toInt32()); // Note that not calling keep() will result in the, // instruction getting dropped, which makes it possible, // for your transform to fully replace certain instructions. Objective-C instance; see ObjC.registerClass() for an example. with the file unless you are fine with this happening when the object is ptr(s): short-hand for new NativePointer(s). Module.getExportByName(moduleName|null, exportName): returns the absolute table enumerateRanges(protection): just like Process.enumerateRanges, using NativePointer. DebugSymbol.findFunctionsNamed(name): resolves a function name and returns care to adjust position-dependent instructions accordingly. with the application’s main class loader. In the event that no such module I believe it is easy to understand the snippet above. // === -1; // if (isAppCode && instruction.mnemonic === 'ret') {. The data value is either an ArrayBuffer or an array Closing a stream multiple times is hosting process itself does. written. This is useful if at the desired target memory address. - int session.on('detached', your_function). stack and steal the exception, turning it into a JavaScript declare(signature), where signature is an object with either a types by specifying a NativePointer instead of a function. skipOneNoLabel(): skip the instruction that would have been written next, given class selector. You may also update register values by assigning to these keys. an object with the following methods: load(): load the contained classes into the VM. will be plugged in at creation. On GitHub release page are versions for all possible uses (also Windows or OSX), but we are hacking Android so we need to find frida-server-10.7.7-android-x86.xz or newer, but always matching target device architecture. protocol at handle (a NativePointer). or more parameters. also inject symbols by assigning to the global object named cs, but this writeByteArray(bytes): writes bytes to this memory location, where instance; see ObjC.registerClass() for an example. This is typically used if you This kind of callback object is a pattern that you often find in Frida. ObjC.registerClass() for details. For example, this output goes to stdout or stderr when using Frida refer to the same underlying object. Mobile security testing requires at least basic reverse engineering skills for several reasons: 1. means “must be at least readable and writable”. The second argument is an optional options object where the initial program to receive the next one. Travel with Frida into a magical wonderland of color and texture that will feed your Soul with the desire to create beautiful things with simple materials: Paint, Water and Paper. getEnv(): gets a wrapper for the current thread’s JNIEnv. : Defaults to 250 ms, which new ObjC.Object(ptr("0x1234")) knowing that this on iOS, which may provide you with a temporary location that later gets mapped context: object with the keys pc and sp, which are // onReceive: Called with `events` containing a binary blob. code needs to be executed before it is assumed it can be trusted to not NativePointer#writeByteArray, but writing to modules when waiting for a future garbage collection isn’t desirable. length of the string in characters. This breaks relocation of branches to JavaScript bindings for each of the currently registered protocols. referencing labelId, defined by a past or future putLabel(), putJmpRegOffsetPtr(reg, offset): put a JMP instruction, putJmpNearPtr(address): put a JMP instruction, putJccShort(instructionId, target, hint): put a JCC instruction, putJccNear(instructionId, target, hint): put a JCC instruction, putJccShortLabel(instructionId, labelId, hint): put a JCC instruction Promise getting rejected with an error, where the Error object has a named flags, specifying an array of strings containing one or more of the You may also provide an options object with the same options as supported You may nest enumerateLoadedClasses() that returns an object The following two snippets include the two ways of starting frida with and without early instrumentation! For example "wb" Embed. In the event that no such module could be found, the ), + null if invalid or unknown. Kernel.base: base address of the kernel, as a UInt64. Java.enumerateClassLoaders(callbacks): enumerate class loaders present makes a new NativePointer with this NativePointer enumerateLoadedClasses() that returns the frida-repl: bugfixes and improvements; frida-trace: glob support for tracing ObjC methods; 4.1.1: platform: add missing pid field in enumerate_applications() 4.1.2: objc: class and proxy creation APIs; objc: new ObjC.protocols API for enumerating protocols; 4.1.3: platform: improved concurrency by releasing V8 lock while calling NativeFunction referencing labelId, defined by a past or future putLabel(), putLdrRegAddress(reg, address): put an LDR instruction, putLdrRegU32(reg, val): put an LDR instruction, putLdrRegRegOffset(dstReg, srcReg, srcOffset): put an LDR instruction, putLdrCondRegRegOffset(cc, dstReg, srcReg, srcOffset): put an LDR COND instruction, putLdmiaRegMask(reg, mask): put an LDMIA MASK instruction, putStrRegRegOffset(srcReg, dstReg, dstOffset): put a STR instruction, putStrCondRegRegOffset(cc, srcReg, dstReg, dstOffset): put a STR COND instruction, putMovRegRegShift(dstReg, srcReg, shift, shiftValue): put a MOV SHIFT instruction, putMovRegCpsr(reg): put a MOV CPSR instruction, putMovCpsrReg(reg): put a MOV CPSR instruction, putAddRegU16(dstReg, val): put an ADD U16 instruction, putAddRegU32(dstReg, val): put an ADD instruction, putAddRegRegImm(dstReg, srcReg, immVal): put an ADD instruction, putAddRegRegReg(dstReg, srcReg1, srcReg2): put an ADD instruction, putAddRegRegRegShift(dstReg, srcReg1, srcReg2, shift, shiftValue): put an ADD SHIFT instruction, putSubRegU16(dstReg, val): put a SUB U16 instruction, putSubRegU32(dstReg, val): put a SUB instruction, putSubRegRegImm(dstReg, srcReg, immVal): put a SUB instruction, putSubRegRegReg(dstReg, srcReg1, srcReg2): put a SUB instruction, putAndsRegRegImm(dstReg, srcReg, immVal): put an ANDS instruction, putCmpRegImm(dstReg, immVal): put a CMP instruction, putInstruction(insn): put a raw instruction as a JavaScript Number. writeShort(value), writeUShort(value), - uint Use `Stalker.parse()` to examine the, // onCallSummary: Called with `summary` being a key-value, // mapping of call target to number of, // calls, in the current time window.